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Table 3 Criteria of RCA replacement ratio for production of structural concrete.

From: Recycled Concrete Aggregates: A Review

  Exposure classa or aggregate Type 1b (%) Type 2b (%)
DAfStb (1998)—Germany X0 [coarse] ≤45 ≤35
XC1 to XC4 [coarse] ≤45 ≤35
XF1 and XF3 [coarse] ≤35 ≤25
XA1 [coarse] ≤25 ≤25
[Fine] Not allowed
   Type 1 c Type 2 c Type 3 c
RILEM (1994)  Coarse (≥4 mm) ≤100 % ≤100 % ≤20 %
 Fine (<4 mm) Not allowed
NEN 5950:1995 (VBT 1995)—Netherlands (NEN 5950:1995 nl 1995)  Coarse ≤20 %
 Fine ≤20 %
CRIC (2004)—Belgium  Coarse ≤100 %
 Fine Allowed with restriction
DS 481 (1998)—Denmark  Coarse ≤100 %
 Fine ≤20 %
BS EN 12620:2002+A1 (BS 2002)—UK  Coarse ≤20 %
 Fine Not allowed
  1. aAccording to EN 1992-1-1:2004: E (Eurocode 2 2004) or DIN EN 206-1 (DIN 2001) and DIN 1045-2 (DIN 2008); X0: No risk of corrosion or attack, very dry; XC1 to XC4: carbonation, dry to permanently wet; XF1 and XF3: freeze/thaw attack, moderate to high water saturation; XA1: chemical attack, slightly aggressive.
  2. bType 1 concrete chippings + crusher sand, Type 2 construction chippings + crusher sand.
  3. cRILEM: Type 1 aggregates from masonry rubble, Type 2 aggregates from concrete rubble; Type 3 mixture of natural (min 80 %) and recycled (max 20 %) aggregate.