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Table 3 Comparison of experimental and FE load-deflection characteristics for test beams.

From: Behavior of FRP-Strengthened RC Beams with Large Rectangular Web Openings in Flexure Zones: Experimental and Numerical Study

Beam ID Results Py (kN) Pu (kN) Δy (mm) Δu (mm) Ks (kN/mm) μΔ Eu (kN·m) Failure mode
BC-N-4PB EXP 208 239 9.4 83.9 22.1 8.9 17,566 Y-CC
  FE 226 238 9.4 85.7 24.2 9.1 18,208 Y-CC
  EXP/FE 0.92 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.92 0.98 0.96  
BC-O1-4PB EXP 215 244 8.9 34.2 24.2 3.8 6876 Y-CC
  FE 216 231 9.5 35.7 22.8 3.8 7179 Y-CC
  EXP/FE 0.99 1.05 0.94 0.96 1.06 1.02 0.96  
BC-N-CPL EXP 180 217 7.5 76.9 24.0 10.3 15,283 Y-CC
  FE 178 204 7.0 85.0 25.3 12.1 16,358 Y-CC
  EXP/FE 1.01 1.06 1.07 0.90 0.95 0.85 0.93  
BC-O1-CPL EXP NY 181 NY 7.0 25.8 766 SF-TC
  FE NY 172 NY 7.6 22.7 827 SF-TC
  EXP/FE 1.05 0.92 1.14 0.93  
BS1-O1-CPL EXP NY 193 NY 8.6 22.4 1001 DB-SF-TC
  FE NY 185 NY 9.1 20.3 1039 DB-SF-TC
  EXP/FE 1.05 0.95 1.10 0.96  
BC-O2-CPL EXP NY 106 NY 3.5 30.2 181 SF-TC
  FE NY 96 NY 3.9 25.0 211 SF-TC
  EXP/FE 1.10 0.91 1.21 0.86  
BS2-O2-CPL EXP NY 201 NY 6.4 31.4 788 BKL-FF-TC
  FE NY 192 NY 5.7 33.8 637 BKL-FF-TC
  EXP/FE 1.05 1.13 0.93 1.24  
  1. Py and Δy load and mid-span deflection at yielding of bottom steel rebars, Pu ultimate load, Δu mid-span deflection at ultimate state, Ks effective pre-yield stiffness, μΔ deflection ductility ratio = Δuy, Eu energy dissipated at ultimate state, Y-CC bottom steel yielding followed by concrete crushing at mid-span, SF-TC shear failure of top chord, DB-SF-TC FRP debonding followed by shear failure of top chord, BKL-FF-TC out-of-plane buckling of steel plates followed by flexural failure of top chord, EXP experimental, FE finite element, NY no steel yielding.