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Table 5 Details and FE results of beams used in the parametric study.

From: Behavior of FRP-Strengthened RC Beams with Large Rectangular Web Openings in Flexure Zones: Experimental and Numerical Study

Beam ID Opening size (mm) o/hc Type of loading Strengthening scheme FE results
h o o Pu (kN) εsu,b (με) εsu,t (με) εspu (με) Failure mode
Effect of strengthening scheme
 BS1-O1-CPL 225 450 4.00 CPL Scheme-1 185 2711 380 DB-SF-TC
 BS3-O1-CPL 225 450 4.00 CPL Scheme-3 236 11,620 468 FF-BM
 BS4-O1-CPL 225 450 4.00 CPL Scheme-4 239 12,285 477 15,657 FF-BM
 BS5-O1-CPL 225 450 4.00 CPL Scheme-5 239 11,530 710 9334 FF-BM
 BS6-O1-CPL 225 450 4.00 CPL Scheme-6 241 11,492 706 5203 FF-BM
 BS2-O2-CPL 225 900 8.00 CPL Scheme-2 192 2296 7768 43,317 BKL-FF-TC
 BS3-O2-CPL 225 900 8.00 CPL Scheme-3 201 2420 7989 49,394 FF-TC
 BS4-O2-CPL 225 900 8.00 CPL Scheme-4 204 2424 4464 48,903 FF-TC
 BS5-O2-CPL 225 900 8.00 CPL Scheme-5 209 2435 6429 33,688 FF-TC
 BS6-O2-CPL 225 900 8.00 CPL Scheme-6 214 2609 3781 30,634 FF-TC
Effect of opening size
 BU-0.0-CPLa No opening   0 CPL Unstrengthened 204 81,413 –4980 FF-BM
 BU-1.0-CPL 225 113 1.00 CPL Unstrengthened 203 55,071 2575 FF-BM
 BU-2.0-CPL 225 225 2.00 CPL Unstrengthened 200 39,071 2319 FF-BM
 BU-3.0-CPL 225 338 3.00 CPL Unstrengthened 198 24,286 2184 FF-BM
 BU-4.0-CPLb 225 450 4.00 CPL Unstrengthened 172 2583 460 SF-TC
 BS4-4.0-CPLc 225 450 4.00 CPL Scheme-4 239 12,285 477 15,657 FF-BM
 BU-5.0-CPL 225 563 5.00 CPL Unstrengthened 138 2040 689 SF-TC
 BS4-5.0-CPL 225 563 5.00 CPL Scheme-4 234 6444 852 18,523 FF-BM
 BU-6.0-CPL 225 675 6.00 CPL Unstrengthened 127 2006 12,855 SF-TC
 BS4-6.0-CPL 225 675 6.00 CPL Scheme-4 221 2881 1208 20,500 FF-BM
 BU-8.0-CPLd 225 900 8.00 CPL Unstrengthened 96 1303 21,894 SF-TC
 BS4-8.0-CPLe 225 900 8.00 CPL Scheme-4 204 2424 4464 48,903 FF-TC
 BU-10.0-CPL 225 1125 10.00 CPL Unstrengthened 54 755 27,289 FF-TC
 BS4-10.0-CPL 225 1125 10.00 CPL Scheme-4 169 1880 11,180 55,100 FF-TC
 BU-12.0-CPL 225 1350 12.00 CPL Unstrengthened 42 211 30,687 FF-TC
 BS4-12.0-CPL 225 1350 12.00 CPL Scheme-4 132 1388 13,344 62,224 FF-TC
  1. ho depth of opening, ℓo length of opening, hc larger of hb and ht where hb and ht= depth of bottom and top chords, respectively, Pu ultimate load, εsu,b peak strain of bottom rebars at mid-span, εsu,t peak strain of top rebars at mid-span, εspu peak tensile strain of steel plate at mid-span, DB-SF-TC FRP debonding followed by shear failure of top chord, FF-BM flexural failure of beam at opening with contribution from both top and bottom chords, BKL-FF-TC out-of-plane buckling of steel plates followed by flexural failure of top chord, FF-TC flexural failure of top chord, SF-TC shear failure of top chord, CPL Center-point loading.
  2. aSame as control beam BC-N-CPL.
  3. bSame as control beam BC-O1-CPL.
  4. cSame as beam BS4-O1-CPL.
  5. dSame as control beam BC-O2-CPL.
  6. eSame as beam BS4-O2-CPL.