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Table 2 Material properties for steel and for the three concrete grades used in the four point bending simulations.

From: Modelling of Stirrup Confinement Effects in RC Layered Beam Finite Elements Using a 3D Yield Criterion and Transversal Equilibrium Constraints

  E\(^s\) (GPa) \(\sigma _{0}^{s}\) (MPa) K (MPa) m \(\epsilon _{u}^{s}\)
Steel 200 516.5 1.445 1 0.15
  E\(^c\) (GPa) \(\sigma _{0}^{c}\) (MPa) \(\alpha \) (1/MPa) \(\beta \) \(\epsilon _{u\,0}^c\)
40 MPa 37.4 55.47 0.1099 23.5574 0.0010
75 MPa 39.2 74.56 0.1111 32.1400 0.0010
90 MPa 41.5 81.61 0.1113 35.2978 0.0007