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Table 4 Seven-steps enable an estimate of the extent of plasticity within the equivalent bend radius of a hooked end fibre.

From: Comparisons Between Pull-Out Behaviour of Various Hooked-End Fibres in Normal–High Strength Concretes

Method 3DH 4DH 5DH
Step 1 (\( \rho_{R} \)) 39.2 57.95 62
Step 2 (\( {\text{y}} \)) 0.40 0.74 0.98
Step 3 (\( x \)) 0.74 0.60 0.56
Step 4 (\( \theta_{e} \)) 15.07 23.57 26.10
Step 5 (\( {\text{R}} \)) 0.67 0.50 0.45
Step 6 (\( h \)) 0.33 0.27 0.25
Step 7 (\( M_{ep} \)) 108 117 140