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Table 3 Main specifications of Firuzkuh sand (ACI304.1-R-92, 1997; http://taminmaseh.ir/Content/Content.aspx?PageCode=28810&mode=5).

From: Laboratory Investigation into the Flexural Behavior of Embedded Concrete Sleepers in Two-Stage Concrete with Preplaced Ballast Aggregate

Main chemical components (%)
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO Na2O K2O L.O.I
97.1 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.2
Sand type Physical properties
Specific density (ton/m3) Humidity (%) Mohs hardness
D11 2.62 0.21 7
NO. 161 2.68
NO. 131 2.65
NO. 181 2.73