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Table 1 Summary of LWAC-BA mixtures and test results (Kim et al., 2020, 2021; Yang, 2020).

From: Empirical Equation for Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Concrete Developed Using Bottom Ash Aggregates

Specimens W/C RBAS (%) RBAC (%) S/a (%) Unit volume weight (kg/m3) Ac ρc,meas f'c,meas fsp,meas fr,meas Ec,meas τb,meas
W C FS BAS CG BAC (%) kg/m3 MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa
L-0-0 0.45 100 100 45 175 389 0 614 0 654 5.5 1703 23.3 2.34 3.93 18,082 4.3
L-25-0 0.45 75 100 45 175 389 189 460 0 654 5 1742 23.8 2.3 4.1 18,685 4.33
L-50-0 0.45 50 100 45 175 389 378 307 0 654 5.2 1773 27 2.35 4.96 19,269 4.75
L-75-0 0.45 25 100 45 175 389 567 153 0 654 5.4 1784 27.7 2.12 4.62 20,197 4.67
L-100-0 0.45 0 100 45 175 389 756 0 0 654 5 1823 27.5 2.96 4.89 21,483 5
L-0-100 0.45 100 0 45 175 389 0 614 932 0 5.2 2015 36.4 3.29 4.97 22,208 5.98
L-25-100 0.45 75 0 45 175 389 189 460 932 0 5.3 2097 41.2 3.47 5.41 25,109 7.1
L-50-100 0.45 50 0 45 175 389 378 307 932 0 5.5 2135 42.9 3.64 5.37 25,291 6.77
L-75-100 0.45 25 0 45 175 389 567 153 932 0 5 2162 40.9 3.68 4.83 24,254 6.21
L-100-100 0.45 0 0 45 175 389 768 0 946 0 4.7 2173 39.2 3.65 4.73 22,223 6.25
M-0-0 0.3 100 100 45 175 583 0 590 0 629 5.8 1775 29.5 3.28 5.39 22,493 5.21
M-25-0 0.3 75 100 45 175 583 182 443 0 629 5.9 1780 28.3 2.37 4.75 20,944 4.77
M-50-0 0.3 50 100 45 175 583 364 295 0 629 5.4 1800 28.8 2.37 4.61 21,827 4.65
M-75-0 0.3 25 100 45 175 583 546 148 0 629 5.5 1828 30.3 2.47 4.75 21,954 4.75
M-100-0 0.3 0 100 45 175 583 728 0 0 629 5 1852 30.6 3.28 5.51 22,058 4.98
M-0-100 0.3 100 0 45 175 583 0 590 896 0 5.4 2066 42.8 3.48 5.81 25,572 5.83
M-25-100 0.3 75 0 45 175 583 182 443 896 0 5.5 2158 42.4 3.74 5.37 25,380 6.62
M-50-100 0.3 50 0 45 175 583 364 295 896 0 4.8 2184 46.3 3.73 6.45 25,699 7.1
M-75-100 0.3 25 0 45 175 583 546 148 896 0 5 2218 48.8 3.89 6.53 26,961 7.34
M-100-100 0.3 0 0 45 175 583 739 0 910 0 4.7 2220 46.1 3.9 6.16 25,410 7.03
H-0-0 0.3 100 100 45 175 583 0 555 0 592 4.8 1840 41.3 3.8 5.55 23,072 4.45
H-100-0 0.3 0 100 45 175 583 684 0 0 592 5 1952 40.7 3.77 4.54 22,316 5.22
H-0-100 0.3 100 0 45 175 583 0 555 843 0 5.2 2171 52.6 3.95 6 27,877 7.03
H-100-100 0.3 0 0 45 175 583 696 0 857 0 5.5 2334 52.1 4.11 6.16 27,419 6.79
  1. RBAS is the percentage of replaced content of BAS (= 100 × BAS's weight to total sand weight); RBAC is the percentage of replaced content of BAC aggregate (= 100 × BAC's weight to total coarse weight); W/C is the water-to-cement ratio; S/a is the fine aggregate ratio; W is the water volume; C is the cement; Fs and CG are the natural sand and coarse aggregates, respectively; BAS and BAC are the bottom ash fine and coarse aggregate, respectively; Ac is the air content; and ρc,meas, f'c,meas, fsp,meas, fr,meas, Ec,meas, and τb,meas are the measured density, compressive strength, splitting tensile, modulus of rupture, elastic modulus, and bond strength at 28 days, respectively.