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Table 3 Force-displacement responses of columns S3 and S4.

From: Flexural Behavior of Circular Hollow RC Piers with Reduced Amounts of Inner Hoops

Column

Yield displacement (mm)

Ultimate displacement (mm)

Peak load (kN)

Displacement ductility (μ)

Push

(+)

Pull

(−)

Avg.

Push

(+)

Pull

(−)

Avg.

Push

(+)

Pull

(−)

Avg.

Push

(+)

Pull

(−)

Avg.

S3

22

18

20

110

152

131

650

625

637.5

5.0

8.4

6.7

S4

16

18

17

120

145

132.5

675

520

597.5

7.5

8.1

7.8