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Table 3 Force-displacement responses of columns S3 and S4.

From: Flexural Behavior of Circular Hollow RC Piers with Reduced Amounts of Inner Hoops

ColumnYield displacement (mm)Ultimate displacement (mm)Peak load (kN)Displacement ductility (μ)
Push
(+)
Pull
(−)
Avg.Push
(+)
Pull
(−)
Avg.Push
(+)
Pull
(−)
Avg.Push
(+)
Pull
(−)
Avg.
S3221820110152131650625637.55.08.46.7
S4161817120145132.5675520597.57.58.17.8