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Table 5 The maximum radial confining stress and the maximum circumferential confining stress experienced by the confined concrete in columns S3 and S4.

From: Flexural Behavior of Circular Hollow RC Piers with Reduced Amounts of Inner Hoops

Columnfr-max (MPa)fcr-max (MPa)f′cc/f′c
S31.684.671.45
S41.934.491.53
Solid2.342.341.39