 Open access
 Published:
Hybrid Effects of CarbonGlass FRP Sheets in Combination with or without Concrete Beams
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials volume 8, pages 27–41 (2014)
Abstract
The use of carbon fibers (CF) and glass fibers (GF) were combined to strengthen concrete flexural members. In this study, data of tensile tests of 94 hybrid carbonglass FRP sheets and 47 carbon and GF rovings or sheets were thoroughly investigated in terms of tensile behavior. Based on comparisons between the rule of mixtures and test data, positive hybrid effects were identified for various (GF/CF) ratios. Unlike the rule of mixtures, the hybrid sheets with relatively low (GF/CF) ratios also produced pseudoductility. From the calibrated results obtained from experiments, a new analytical model for the stress–strain relationship of hybrid FRP sheets was proposed. Finally, the hybrid effects were verified by structural tests of concrete members strengthened with hybrid FRP sheets and either carbon or glass FRP sheets.
1 Introduction
Since the late 1980s fiberreinforced polymer (FRP) sheets or wraps have been used to replace corrosionvulnerable steel plates in repair applications. FRP sheets offer the advantages of light weight, high strength, low cost, constructability, and durability (noncorrosiveness). Despite the expensive cost relative to glass fibers (GF), carbon fibers (CF) and carbon FRP sheets/plates have been primarily used for repair and retrofit. This is mainly due to the fact that CF has a high elastic modulus and high ultimate strength (see Fig. 1). GF is popular, particularly for column jacketing (confining) retrofit, as it only costs about 5–10 % as much as CF. GF has much less ultimate stress and very low elastic modulus (only about a quarter of that of steel), but very large ductility (Fig. 1). It is noted that aramid fibers (AF) have both very large ductility and relatively high elastic modulus (Fig. 1); however, because AF is as costly as CF, little economic advantage may be gained from the use of AF.
Brittleness is a major drawback of all these fibers (CF, AF and GF), since they have no yielding point and associated nonlinear behavior (Fig. 1). To improve the ductility of the fibers, a number of composite material science investigations have been conducted on hybrid fibrous composites (e.g., Bunsell and Harris 1974; Phillips 1976; Aveston and Sillwood 1976; Marom et al. 1978; Chou and Kelly 1980; Manders and Bader 1981; Miwa and Horiba 1994; Pan and Postle 1996). Applications of hybrid FRP composites, such as hybrid FRP bars and sheets combined with concrete, have been studied by several researchers (e.g., Nanni et al. 1994; Harris et al. 1998; Grace et al. 2002). The primary purpose of these civil engineering applications was to achieve “pseudoductility” similar to the ductile response of nonlinear steel materials. Pseudoductility can be defined in this paper as when, after the first fiber failure (first drop in load), the load carrying capacity is recovered or improved as the remaining fibers elongate. Pseudoductility is desirable because clear sound warning is produced during the first fiber failure, which indicates distress and the possible impending failure of structures.
The secondary purpose of hybrid FRP composites in civil engineering applications might be to actively utilize the socalled “hybrid effects.” Marom et al. (1978) defined the hybrid effects as the deviation of the behavior of a hybrid composite from the rule of mixtures, while Manders and Bader (1981) simply defined it as the difference in behavior between a fiber in a hybrid composite and in a nonhybrid composite. Both positive and negative hybrid effects are possible; the effects are deemed positive when mechanical properties are above the prediction based on the rule of mixtures and vice versa for negative effects. It is extremely difficult to theoretically predict the hybrid effects and mechanical properties of hybrid fibrous composites, which are known to depend on the volumetric ratio of each fiber component, bonding property between the components, and elastic moduli of the fibers or their ratio (Pan and Postle 1996). This is mainly due to the unavoidable uncertainty of the bonding property. Furthermore, the size effect is involved. In civil engineering applications, hybrid FRP sheets or plates consisting of fiber rovings (strands) would be practical and feasible. A highstrength CF roving is typically made of about 12,000 filaments (12 K) or multiples of 12,000 filaments (e.g., 24 or 48 K), while an EGF roving is made of 1,200, 2,200 tex or multiple of 2,200 tex, where 1 tex is 1,000 m/g. Figure 2 shows microscopic crosssectional views of CF and GF rovings taken using a scanning electron microscopy of the University of Oklahoma. Thus, some findings from previous research on a microcomposite or a composite made of a fraction of different fibers embedded in the composite matrix (i.e., in the fiber roving or strand) may not be applicable to the hybrid FRP sheets that are focused on infrastructure repair or other civil engineering applications.
When the hybrid carbonglass FRP sheet is subjected to tension, the CF with high elastic modulus and low ultimate strain ruptures first. The GF, with lower elastic modulus and higher ultimate strain, then takes over and resists the load. As noted, if the stress at GF rupture is equal to or higher than that at CF rupture, which depends on a volume ratio of (GF/CF) (e.g., Manders and Bader 1981), the pseudoductility can be obtained. Hybrid effects are additionally expected to be gained, such that it is possible to enhance (first) failure stress (or strain) beyond that predicted from the rule of mixtures, given Eq. (1) below:
where E_{ HF } is the weighted mean elastic modulus of a carbonglass hybrid composite; E_{ CF } and E_{ GF } are the elastic moduli of CF and GF, respectively; V_{ CF } and V_{ GF } are the CF and GF volumes, respectively; and V_{ HF } is the combined CF and GF volume or the volume of the hybrid composites.
Manders and Bader (1981) reported that the increase in strain at CF rupture in sandwich laminated hybrids would be about 50 % of that of single CF, and Aveston and Sillwood (1976) also experimentally confirmed that the strain at CF rupture of hybrid carbon–glass–epoxy composites could be increased up to about 0.01. Furthermore, Miwa and Horiba (1994) suggested the empirical rule of “hybrid” mixtures as:
where f_{ u_C_HF } is the mean stress of a carbonglass hybrid composite at CF rupture and f_{ u_CF } and f_{ u_GF } are the ultimate stresses of CF and GF ruptures, respectively.
However, researchers (e.g., Manders and Bader 1981; Miwa and Horiba 1994) did not reach any definite conclusion on the ultimate stress of hybrid carbonglass composites at GF rupture. Pan and Postle (1996) reported that due to the crosscoupling effects between the different fibers, a positive hybrid effect would be expected at the first fiber rupture, whereas a negative effect would be expected at the second fiber rupture; however, this appears to be the case only for the first fiber embedded in the matrix or a postulate without examination of an optimal ratio of two different fibers. It is not appropriate to apply the shear lag model (Cox 1952) to the case of interest, since the hybrid sheet may have a substantially different degree of interfacial shear stress as in the case of a shortfiber embedded in the matrix. The increased or decreased strain (or stress) at GF rupture of the hybrid composites, particularly hybrid FRP sheets that are common in civil engineering applications, have not been well studied. A continuous FRP sheet consisting of fiber rovings may have a moderate level of frictional coupling between GF and CF rovings and behave very differently than the microcomposites with a high level of frictional coupling.
This study consists of: (1) material test programs for identification of hybrid effects in the carbonglass FRP sheets; (2) development of design models for stress–strain relationships with and without consideration of the hybrid effects; and (3) structural memberlevel verification of the hybrid effects.
2 Material Test Programs
Two independent material test programs on uniaxial hybrid FRP sheets (Fig. 3) and each corresponding fiber used for the fabrication of the hybrid sheets are presented in this section. Note that although ACI 440.2R08, Section 4.3.1 recommends using mean minus three times standard deviations for the ultimate stress and strain from at least 20 samples, the number for the tested sample was <20 for all three test programs.
2.1 First Test Program
Rovings of highstrength CF and EGF were tested in tension, hybrid carbonglass FRP sheets in tension, and epoxy adhesives in bending (J type). Both bare and impregnated rovings were tested (Fig. 4a, b), and digital data of forces and displacements at ultimate indicated by a Universal Test Machine (U.T.M.) with a 500 N capacity were manually recorded. The crosssectional areas of CF and GF rovings were 0.886 and 0.444 mm^{2}, respectively. This is based on each material’s Specific Gravity (ρ_{ CF } = 1.8; ρ_{ GF } = 2.54), and the measured weight and length. The impregnated roving tests were carried out in accordance with ASTM D303908. The test specimens had a total length of 400 mm and an effective length between yarn grips of 260 mm. The tensile loading speed was 10 mm/min.
For the bar roving tests, a pair of thin, flat plastic films were laminated in the grips. For the impregnated roving tests, two different types of grips (Types A and B) were developed. The Type A grip tabs were applied using an epoxy adhesive. According to ASTM D303908, no industry consensus on the grip at the end of the fiber coupon is available. Thus, although grip failures were not observed from any of the methods used in the first test program, an alternative method of gripping was developed, specifically, 90° sandwich laminates using the same fiber rovings (Type B grip). Table 1 summarizes the average of the results from rovings categorized as nonimpregnated, impregnatedType A grip and impregnatedType B grip. As shown, there were no significant discrepancies between the methods and within a method (standard deviations were relatively small), indicating that all of the test methods may yield consistent results.
Carbonglass hybrid FRP sheets were fabricated with a (GF/CF) volumetric ratio of (8.8/1), and tested in tension in accordance with CSA S80602. Table 2 indicates the averaged values for three samples of the hybrid FRP sheets. Each sample has a crosssectional area of about 17.5 mm^{2}, with a 48 KCF roving of 1.8 mm^{2} and eighteen 2,200 texGF rovings of 15.6 mm^{2}. Both strain gauges and LVDTs embedded in the U.T.M. with a capacity of 1,200 kN were used to digitally monitor stains or displacement. In this study, the LVDT data were more reliable than the strain gauge data.
In order to identify mechanical properties of epoxy adhesives, flexural tests were conducted instead of direct tensile tests. This is because, first, the flexural tests are much more convenient, and second, a tensile strain is generally smaller than the actual strain of the adhesive bonded to concrete (ASTM D638). In this study, epoxy solid blocks (J type) with dimensions of 25 × 25 × 240 mm were tested in flexure under fourpoint loading. The resulting average values of ultimate stress and strain and modulus of elasticity at rupture for three specimens are 42.8 MPa, 0.0197 and 2.19 GPa, respectively, which are similar to the typical values reported by ACI 503R93. The ultimate strain of the product was relatively low. It would be useful to have an ultimate strain of about 0.04 to ensure that fiber ruptures prior to epoxy failure.
2.2 Second Test Program
Tensile tests of conventional carbon and glass FRP sheets and hybrid carbonglass FRP sheets were conducted with a variety of (GF/CF) ratios ranging from (1/1) to (10/1). Each sheet had a total length of about 250 mm. Highstrength CF and EGF rovings were used along with two different types of epoxy resins (J type and K type) to fabricate a total of 99 impregnated hybrid sheet coupons. The J type epoxy is commonly used in practice, and the K type epoxy has a higher ductility. Tensile tests of the epoxy resins turned out to be infeasible due to the grip problem; thus, fourpoint loading tests were conducted on 25 × 25 × 240 mm molded epoxy blocks. The ultimate strains for the J and K types were measured to be 0.02 and 0.029, respectively.
Using Specific Gravity (ρ_{ CF } = 1.8 and ρ_{ GF } = 2.54) and measured weights and lengths, the crosssectional areas of CF and GF rovings were calculated to be 0.45 and 0.455 mm^{2}, respectively. Controlling the number of each fiber roving (12 KCF roving and 1,200 texGF roving), hybrid FRP sheets with 12 different (GF/CF) ratios were made (Table 3), including carbon FRP and glass FRP sheets. However, all the data from the glass FRP sheets were misplaced. Each sheet was impregnated with epoxy resin in a mold, where overhead projector (OHP) films were used to make the sample detachable from the mold. The width of the sample ranged from 11.9 to 16.5 mm, and the strip thickness was 1.5 mm. An epoxytofiber ratio of 1.5 was used.
Tension forces were digitally recorded from the U.T.M., tensile strains from the strain gauges mounted on the impregnated FRP sheet and total elongations from the LVDTs. The tensile loading speed was 1 mm/min.
3 The Rule of Mixtures
Chou and Kelly (1980) and Manders and Bader (1981) proposed a tensile stress model for hybrid carbonglass FRP composites, as shown in Fig. 5, based on the rule of mixtures. Points A and D denote the ultimate tensile stresses when GF and CF, respectively, are used alone (i.e., GF = 100 %; CF = 100 %). The lines A–E and B–D represent the mean stresses in hybrid FRP when GF and CF fail, respectively. The CF with lower ε_{ u_CF } than ε_{ u_GF } (or higher E_{ _CF } than E_{ _GF }) always fails prior to GF. To the right of Point C, after the first failure of CF, the hybrid FRP has a very low residual mean stress that is only provided by GF (i.e., brittle failure). To the left of Point C, even after the first failure of CF, the hybrid FRP with a relatively large amount of GF can sustain more loads without a drop in strength until the GF rupture. As such, pseudoductility can be achieved with this combination.
Points A and D are taken as f_{ u_CF } and f_{ u_GF }, respectively, which can be obtained from the roving or sheet tests. The mean stress at Point B is calculated as ε_{ u_CF } times E_{ GF }, where ε_{ u_CF } is the measured average ultimate strain of the CF roving/sheet and E_{ GF } is the measured elastic modulus of the GF roving/sheet. Using the rule of mixtures and the material properties, the xaxis value at Point C is determined (e.g., (4.4/1) for the first test program). The ratios of (4.4/1) and (8.8/1) are equivalent to the carbon volume fractions of 18.4 and 10.2 %, respectively. The yaxis value can be obtained from a cross point of two straight lines drawn in Fig. 5a or b.
To determine the stress (f_{ HF }) in hybrid FRP for a given tensile strain (ε_{ HF }), the rule of mixtures is applied as follows:
where ε_{ HF } and f_{ HF } are the strain and stress in hybrid FRP (variables), respectively; ε_{ u_CF } and ε_{ u_GF } are the ultimate strains of CF and GF, respectively; E_{ CF } and E_{ GF } are the elastic moduli of CF and GF, respectively; A_{ CF } and A_{ GF } are the crosssectional areas of CF and GF in a hybrid sheet coupon, and A_{ HF } is (A_{ CF } + A_{ GF }).
Equations (3) and (4) are consistent with Fig. 5. For example, when the fiber roving properties of the first test program are considered and the carbon volume fraction is 18.4 %, the stress of f_{ HF } is calculated to be [(0.184E_{ CF } + 0.816E_{ GF }) × ε_{ HF }] at CF rupture, which is represented by Point C in Fig. 5a. Once CF rupture occurs Eq. (4) is applicable and the stress at GF rupture is assumed to be the same as [ε_{ u_GF }E_{ GF } × (A_{ GF }/A_{ HF })]. This failure is represented by the line A–E in Fig. 5.
4 Assessment of Test Results
Based on the information relevant to the mechanical properties of materials obtained in the test programs, an attempt was made to identify two different hybrid effects: (1) improved mechanical properties until the first peak, and (2) those after the first peak. Assessment of the data was carefully undertaken in this section.
4.1 First Test Program
First, the roving tensile properties were obtained (Table 1). Using each fiber’s Specific Gravity (ρ_{ CF } = 1.8; ρ_{ GF } = 2.54) and measured weight per unit length, the crosssectional area was determined to be 0.444 and 0.866 mm^{2} for the tested CF and GF rovings, respectively. The weight of the fiber roving was measured using a digital scale with an accuracy of ±0.01 g.
Results from the tensile tests are presented in Table 1. In the remainder of the paper, the mean stress and strain (f_{ u } and ε_{ u }) from the nonimpregnated (bare) coupon tests were used (though both results are similar). This is because epoxy resins are typically applied on only one side of the FRP sheet. The roving results for ultimate stress (f_{ u }), ultimate strain (ε_{ u }) and elastic modulus (E) in tension are substantially lower than the filament properties provided by the manufacturer (Table 1). This is due to the fragmentation process that generates unequal tension of filaments within a roving and failure strain variation between the filaments. Such phenomena are also seen from the behavior of conventional FRP sheets externally bonded to the concrete surface.
As indicated in Table 2 [compare Columns (4) and (7), and (11) and (12)], both stresses at CF and GF ruptures in hybrid FRP sheets with a (GF/CF) ratio of (8.8/1) were higher than the stress values of CF and GF rovings (see averages in Table 1), respectively. These positive hybrid effects can be seen as a result of the synergistic strengthening of both fibers. In particular, the ultimate stress and strain were increased by about 38 and 25 %, respectively, compared with those of the GF roving. The corresponding stiffness after the first peak (CF rupture) was 54.5 MPa, about 20 % larger than the elastic modulus (45 MPa) of the GF roving. Tensile stress–strain relations of 2 samples of the hybrid FRP sheets are plotted in Fig. 6, where the LVDT data were used to determine strains, in comparison with that of steel. Again, it is noted that the stress was calculated as the measured load divided by the crosssectional areas of A_{ HF } until the first peak (CF rupture) and A_{ GF } after CF rupture.
4.2 Second Test Program
In this study, the roving properties of each fiber were not obtained; rather, the impregnated carbon FRP and glass FRP sheets were tested in tension to obtain each fiber’s properties. Unfortunately, the results of the impregnated glass FRP sheets were misplaced; thus, the ultimate strain (ε_{ u_GF } = 0.0176) from the roving tests of the first test program is adopted for further analysis, as the fibers used for both programs were manufactured by the same vendor. For the elastic modulus of GF, the average stiffness of the hybrid sheets after CF rupture can be generally taken into account assuming that the Young’s modulus (E_{ GF } = 67.3 GPa) is almost the same as that of GF. Finally, the ultimate stress (f_{ u_GF } = 1,185 MPa) is taken as the product of 0.0176 and 67.3 GPa.
Figure 7 shows selected results of the impregnated carbon FRP and hybrid FRP sheets, with all results provided in Tables 1, 2 and 3. The stress was taken to be the load divided by the crosssectional area of the whole fibers until CF rupture and by the area of the GF only after CF rupture. The crosssectional area of the sheet was determined based on the number of each fiber roving and its crosssectional area estimated using the roving weight and Specific Gravity (ρ_{ CF } = 1.8; ρ_{ GF } = 2.54), where the weight was measured using a microdigital scale with an accuracy of ±1 × 10^{−5} g. This does not include the area of the epoxy. In addition, it appears that the type of epoxy resins did not affect the tensile behavior of the sheets much. There was no clear evidence of different performance between the sheets impregnated using the J type and K type epoxy resins.
The ultimate stresses (average f_{ u_CF } = 2,656 MPa) and elastic moduli (average E_{ CF } = 202 MPa) of the impregnated carbon FRP sheets are lower than those (f_{ u_CF } = 4,900 MPa; E_{ CF } = 230 GPa) of a carbon filament that the manufacturer reported. The differences are much less compared with those between the filament and rovings. The average ultimate strain (ε_{ u_CF }) of the CF sheets is 0.013, which is smaller than all but three of 91 ultimate strains (average ε_{ u_C_HF } = 0.018) of the hybrid sheet coupons at CF rupture. This is evidently due to the hybrid effect. For the hybrid FRP sheets, the ratio of (GF/CF) also affected the overall behavior. As the (GF/CF) ratio increased, both the strains at CF and GF ruptures generally increased (Table 3). In the following section, more detailed investigations are conducted in connection with the theoretical models.
5 Comparison with the Rule of Mixtures
Experimental results corresponding to line B–D in Fig. 5 are obtained using the measured strains of hybrid FRP coupons at CF rupture and the measured loads, summarized in Column (4) of Tables 2 and 3, and depicted in Fig. 7a, b. The significantly increased stresses relative to line B–D are noted. The average strain (ε_{ u_C_HF }) at CF rupture is about 35 % higher than ε_{ u_CF }. For (GF/CF) ratios higher than (4.4/1), an increase of about 45 % occurred, whereas for (GF/CF) ratios lower than (4.4/1), the increase was about 22 %. In general, the value of ε_{ u_C_HF } increases as the (GF/CF) ratio increases. This indicates that a constant increase in failure strain, when the hybrid effect is expected, may not be valid (e.g., 50 % or 0.01 strain increase). The difference between the measured stresses of f_{ u_C_HF } and the predicted stresses of f_{ u_C_HF } based on Eq. (2) is only about 10 % (see Columns (4) and (8) of Tables 2 and 3), indicating that the rule of “hybrid” mixtures suggested by Miwa and Horiba (1994) works better than the rule of mixtures for fiber composites, which underestimates the experimental values by about 35 %.
Based on these results, the positive hybrid effect is evident for hybrid FRP sheets that are usually used for repair and retrofit of the concrete structures, and these hybrid effects include the stress and strain of the hybrid FRP sheet at CF rupture (but not Young’s modulus). The Young’s modulus of the hybrid FRP sheet until CF rupture is almost the same as that of the carbon FRP sheet (1 % difference on average).
Similarly, experimental results corresponding to the line A–E in Fig. 5 are examined. The average stress (f_{ u_G_HF } = 1,094 MPa) at GF rupture was monitored from three specimens of the first test program with the (GF/CF) ratio of (8.8/1). This is about 40 % higher than the corresponding point (f_{ u_GF } × (A_{ GF }/A_{ HF })] = 771 MPa) in Fig. 7c (see Column (12) of Table 2). The average ultimate strain (ε_{ u_G_HF } = 0.022) of the hybrid FRP is also higher by 40 % relative to the product (=0.0158) of ε_{ u_GF } and (A_{ GF }/A_{ HF }). This is clearly inconsistent with the rule of mixtures. Furthermore, the average increase in stress after CF rupture divided by the average increase in strain (54.7 GPa) is somewhat higher than the elastic modulus (E_{ GF } = 45 GPa) of the GF roving (by about 20 %).
Unlike the first test program, the GF rupture was not captured well for many specimens of the second test program because of the strain gauge or epoxy failure prior to GF rupture, and the disruption of testing once the strain gauge or epoxy failed. Therefore, direct comparisons between f_{ u_G_HF } and (f_{ u_GF } x [GF/(GF + CF)]) or between ε_{ u_GF } and (ε_{ u_G_HF } x [GF/(GF + CF)]) are not possible due to the absence of the GF properties. The averages of the 14 measured values of f_{ u_G_HF } and ε_{ u_G_HF } are 1,759 MPa and 0.022, respectively, which are generally higher than the roving test results of the first program. Interestingly, there is a tendency of increasing failure stress (f_{ u_G_HF }) with decreasing (GF/CF) ratio or increasing carbon volume fraction (Fig. 7). This means that both the initial stiffness and pseudoductility can be obtained even with lower (GF/CF) ratios (see Figs. 6a, 8 and 9). sideration of the hybrid effect rule of mixtures is noteworthy, the data appear not to indicate different ultimate strains depending on the (GF/CF) ratio (vs ultimate stresses). There is a need for further experimental investigation for the ultimate stress and strain in relation with the (GF/CF) ratio.
Based on the two independent programs investigated, it can be concluded that the hybrid effects are positive in terms of the ultimate stress and strain at GF rupture for all (GF/CF) ratios. Note that these positive effects are contrary to the prediction made by Pan and Postle (1996) for microfibers embedded in the matrix. This seems to be related to the degree of coupling between two different fibers. The use of hybrid FRP sheets consisting of CF and GF rovings has been proven to be a very effective means to promote synergistic hybrid effects. In a similar manner, the hybrid effect of uniaxial hybrid FRP sheets that are made of three different fiber rovings could be investigated.
Figure 6a shows the stress–strain relationship for the two coupons tested in the first test program, where pseudoductility was observed. This is consistent with the rule of mixtures which suggests the recovery of the stress after CF rupture when a point representing the (GF/CF) ratio is located to the left of Point C in Fig. 5. On the other hand, the data reported from the second test program exhibit a high degree of ductility after CF rupture even for low (GF/CF) ratios (Figs. 6b and 8). Because the data are quite limited, additional tests would be helpful to evaluate the stress recovery after CF rupture.
6 Proposed Stress–Strain Relationship for Hybrid FRP Sheets
When the moment and shear capacities of concrete members strengthened with hybrid FRP sheets are determined, a stress–strain or force–strain relationship of the hybrid FRP sheets would be needed. The stress–strain relationship of Eqs. (3) and (4), which is based on the rule of mixtures, does not account for the identified positive hybrid effects. In this study, based on the review on the test results, the following stress–strain relationship for hybrid carbonglass hybrid FRP sheets is proposed.
where ε_{ u_C_HF } is taken as (f_{ u_C_HF }/E_{ HF }); f_{ u_C_HF } can be estimated using Eq. (2); and ε_{ u_G_HF } is the strain of hybrid FRP sheets at GF rupture, suggested to be ~0.022 when a (GF/CF) ratio is larger than (4/1), respectively. The suggested values are based on the assessed data from the two test programs. It is noted that the elastic moduli in the proposed stress–strain relationship do not reflect the positive hybrid effect since the increased properties are minor, and that after CF rupture the stress of f_{ HF } should be paired with A_{ GF } (not A_{ HF }) to determine the force, assuming that CF no longer resists any tension.
The analytical stress–strain relationships with and without consideration of hybrid effects are depicted in Fig. 9 for a variety of (GF/CF) ratios. The former is expressed in the form of Eqs. (5) and (6), while the latter is expressed in the form of Eqs. (3) and (4). It is noted that ε_{ u_C_HF } is a function of the (GF/CF) ratio, whereas a fixed value of ε_{ u_G_HF } of 0.022 is proposed. Additionally, strains of ε_{ u_CF } and ε_{ u_GF } are suggested to be 0.013 and 0.018, respectively, and elastic moduli of E_{ CF } and E_{ GF } to be 202 and 67 GPa. If the rule of mixtures is applied, pseudoductility can only be achieved when a (GF/CF) ratio is not less than (8.8/1) (Fig. 9a). If the hybrid effect is considered, which has been demonstrated in this study, pseudoductility is characterized in almost all (GF/CF) ratios (Fig. 9b). Furthermore, a strain at CF rupture is even higher than that at the second fiber (GF) rupture without the consideration of the hybrid effect (Fig. 9c, d). This is one of the greatest advantages that hybridized carbon and GF can offer. Regarding the effect of the (GF/CF) ratio, the hybrid model shows better performance in terms of the stiffness for lower (GF/CF) ratios, and the same ductility for all (GF/CF) ratios, still substantially higher than that of CF or GF. Such behaviors are seen in Figs. 6a and 8. However, a high (GF/CF) ratio (e.g., 8.7/1) is recommended because the reduction of the crosssectional area of the FRP sheet with a very low (GF/CF) is drastic and cost effectiveness is at its maximum when the highest (GF/CF) ratio is used.
7 Verification of Hybrid Effects of FRP in Combination with Concrete Beams
The writers of this paper previously tested plain concrete beams and reinforced concrete (RC) beams with hybrid FRP sheets or carbon FRP sheets (Choi et al. 2011). Figure 10 compares load–displacement relations for the tested plain concrete beams. All beams failed in a relatively brittle manner due to the fiber rupture. It is notable that the CF ruptures in concrete beams with hybrid FRP sheets [H37/1(a) and H37/1(b)] occurred at larger displacements than CF ruptures in concrete beams with carbon FRP sheets only [C3(a) and C3(b)], respectively. This clearly verifies positive hybrid effect in terms of CF rupture. Moreover, positive hybrid effect for GF rupture was observed in that GF ruptures in beams with hybrid FRP sheets [H37/1(a) and H37/1(b)] occurred at slightly to substantially larger displacements than GF ruptures in beams with glass FRP sheets only [G3(a) and G3(b)], respectively. Figure 11 depicts load versus midspan deflection relations for RC beams strengthened with hybrid FRP sheets or carbon FRP sheets. The hybrid FRPstrengthened RC beams underwent both CF and GF ruptures at more than 26 and 30 mm displacements, respectively, whereas the carbon FRPstrengthened RC beam began to fail at a much lower displacement of ~24 mm. As such, the positive hybrid effect in terms of CF rupture was also verified for hybrid FRP sheets bonded to RC beams. Such a positive hybrid effect was consistently found regardless of the number of hybrid FRP sheet layers (1 ply to 3 plies).
8 Conclusions
The purposes of the use of uniaxial hybrid FRP sheets in the repair of existing concrete structures can be to achieve pseudoductility and utilize their hybrid effects. In this study, the tensile test results from a total of 94 hybrid carbonglass FRP sheets and 47 carbon and GF rovings or sheets were investigated in depth. Based on the investigation, a number of conclusions are made as follows:

(1)
The three types of grips used for the roving tests are effective. In particular, the grip with 90° sandwich laminates using the same fiber rovings was very sound.

(2)
The two epoxy resins (J and K types) sustained strains up to about 0.02 and 0.03, respectively; however, an ultimate strain of about 0.04 is recommended to prevent epoxy failure prior to fiber rupture. Neither type of the epoxy resins affected the tensile behavior of the sheets much.

(3)
The elastic moduli of hybrid FRP sheets generally correspond to the rule of mixtures.

(4)
The strains at CF and GF ruptures of the hybrid sheets are about 0.018 and 0.022, respectively, on average, which are substantially higher than the ultimate strains of each CF and GF (0.013 and 0.018). A trend of increased strain at CF rupture for increased (GF/CF) ratio was observed, while there is no clear indication of different strains at GF rupture depending on the (GF/CF) ratio.

(5)
The stresses at CF rupture of the hybrid sheets are significantly higher than those predicted based on the rule of mixtures, differing by about 40 %, but are quite close to those predicted based on the rule of hybrid mixtures developed by Miwa and Horiba (1994) (within about 10 % difference). Additionally, the stresses at GF rupture are considerably higher than those predicted based on the rule of mixtures, by about 80 %. The discovery of these positive hybrid effects is a significant advance.

(6)
A general trend of increased stress at GF rupture for decreased (GF/CF) ratio was observed. This signals that both the initial stiffness and pseudoductility could be obtained even with a very low (GF/CF) ratio. However, given the limited data, additional research would be needed to verify this trend.

(7)
The identified hybrid effects are evident for all (GF/CF) ratios. When carbon and GF are hybridized, an ultimate strain at the first fiber (carbon) rupture could be even higher than the ultimate strain of the second fiber (glass only).

(8)
The positive hybrid effects at both CF and GF ruptures might be shown only in the hybrid FRP sheets that are made of CF and GF rovings. If each fiber had been mixed in a roving, the positive hybrid effects might have not been found.

(9)
The positive hybrid effects at both CF and GF ruptures were clearly verified by the structural memberlevel tests of both plain concrete beams and RC beams.
References
ACI Committee. (1998). 503, Use of Epoxy Compounds with Concrete (ACI 503R93; Reapproved 1998), ACI, Farmington Hills, Mich., p. 28.
ACI Committee. (2002). 440, Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures (ACI 440.2R02), ACI, Farmington Hills, Mich., p. 45.
ASTM International. (2008). ASTM D63808 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, West Conshohocken, Penn: ASTM International, p. 16.
ASTM International. (2008). ASTM D3039/D3039M08 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, p. 13.
Aveston, J., & Sillwood, J. M. (1976). Synergistic fibre strengthening in hybrid composites. Journal of Materials Science,11(10), 1877–1883.
Bunsell, A. R., & Harris, B. (1974). Hybrid carbon and glass fibre composites. Composites,5, 157–164.
CAN/CSA. (2007). S80602 (R2007), Design and construction of building components with fibrereinforced polymers, CSA, Mississauga, Canada, p. 206.
Choi, D.U., Kang, T. H.K., Ha, S–. S., Kim, K.H., & Kim, W. (2011). Flexural and bond behavior of concrete beams strengthened with hybrid carbonglass fiberreinforced polymer sheets. ACI Structural Journal,108(1), 90–98.
Chou, T.W., & Kelly, A. (1980). Mechanical properties of composites. Annual Reviews of Material Science,10, 229–259.
Cox, H. L. (1952). The elasticity and strength of paper and other fibrous materials. British Journal of Applied Physics,3, 72–79.
Grace, N. F., AbelSayed, G., & Ragheb, W. F. (2002). Strengthening of concrete beams using innovative ductile fiberreinforced polymer fabric. ACI Structural Journal,99(5), 692–700.
Harris, H. G., Somboonsong, W., & Frank, K. K. (1998). New ductile hybrid FRP reinforcing bar for concrete structures. ASCE Journal of Composites for Construction,2(4), 28–36.
Manders, P. W., & Bader, M. G. (1981). The strength of hybrid glass/carbon fibre composites: Part 1. Failure strain enhancement and failure mode. Journal of Materials Science,16, 2233–2245.
Marom, G., Fischer, S., Tuler, F. R., & Wagner, H. D. (1978). Hybrid effects in composites: Conditions for positive or negative effects versus rule of mixtures. Journal of Materials Science,13, 1419–1426.
Miwa, M., & Horiba, N. (1994). Effects of fibre length on tensile strength of carbon/glass fibre hybrid composites. Journal of Materials Science,29, 973–997.
Nanni, A., Henneke, M. J., & Okamoto, T. (1994). Tensile properties of hybrid rods for concrete reinforcement. Construction and Building Materials,8(1), 27–34.
Pan, N., & Postle, R. (1996). Tensile strengths and the hybrid effects of hybrid fibre composites: A probabilistic approach. Transitions of the Royal Society in London, Series A,354, 1875–1897.
Phillips, L. N. (1976). The hybrid effectdoes it exist? Composites,7, 7–8.
Acknowledgments
The research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grants (Nos. 2005042103561 and 2012005905) and U.S. DOT Grant (No. DTRT06G0016/OTCREOS10.121). Additionally, the authors would like to acknowledge Dr. ChinYong Lee of CareCon Co. for his generous donation of materials and technical supports. The opinions, findings and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the sponsors.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Corresponding author
Rights and permissions
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.
About this article
Cite this article
Kang, T.HK., Kim, W., Ha, SS. et al. Hybrid Effects of CarbonGlass FRP Sheets in Combination with or without Concrete Beams. Int J Concr Struct Mater 8, 27–41 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s4006901300610
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
Issue Date:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s4006901300610