ACI Committee 201. (1991). Guide to durable concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 88, 551–554.
al-Amoudi, O. S. B. (2002). Attack on plain and blended cements exposed to aggressive sulfate environments. Cement & Concrete Composites,
Al-Chaar, G. K., Al-Kadi, M., & Asteris, P. G. (2013). Natural pozzolan as a partial substitute for cement in concrete. The Open Construction and Technology Journal,
Al-Dulaijan, S. U., Maslehuddin, M., Al-Zahrani, M. M., Sharif, A. M., Shameem, M., & Ibrahim, M. (2003). Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cements exposed to varying concentrations of sodium sulfate. Cement & Concrete Composites,
Al-Tayyib, A. J., & Al-Zahrani, M. M. (1990). Corrosion of steel reinforcement in polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete structures. ACI Materials Journal,
ASTM C1012 (2004). Standard test method for length change of hydraulic-cement mortars exposed to a sulfate solution. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
ASTM C1202 (2001). Electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
ASTM C267 (2001). Standard test methods for chemical resistance of mortars, grouts, and monolithic surfacings and polymer concretes. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
ASTM C618 (2001). Standard test methods for coal ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
ASTM C595 (2001). Standard specification for blended hydraulic cements. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
Aydın, S., Yazıcı, H., Yigiter, H., & Baradan, B. (2007). Sulfuric acid resistance of high-volume fly ash concrete. Building and Environment,
Cao, H. T., Bucea, I., Ray, A., & Yozghatlian, S. (1997). The effect of cement composition and pH of environment on sulfate resistance of Portland cements and blended cements. Cement & Concrete Composites,
Cavdar, A., & Yetgin, S. (2007). Availability of tuffs from northeast of Turkey as natural pozzolans on cement, some chemical and mechanical relationships. Construction and Building Materials,
Chindaprasirt, P., Chotithanorm, C., Cao, H. T., & Sirivivatnanon, V. (2007). Influence of fly ash fineness on the chloride penetration of concrete. Construction and Building Materials,
Colak, A. (2003). Characteristics of pastes from a Portland cement containing different amounts of natural pozzolan. Cement and Concrete Research,
EN 196-2 (1989). Methods of testing cement, part 2. Chemical analysis of cement. Brussels, Belgium: European Committee for Standardization.
EN 197-1 (2004). Cement: part 1. Composition, specification and conformity criteria for common cements. Brussels, Belgium: European Committee for Standardization.
Fattuhi, N. I., & Hughes, B. P. (1988). SRPC and modified concretes subjected to severe sulphuric acid attack. Magazine of Concrete Research,
Gastaldini, A. L. G., Isaia, G. C., Gomes, N. S., & Sperb, J. E. K. (2007). Chloride penetration and carbonation in concrete with rice husk ash and chemical activators. Cement & Concrete Composites,
Ghrici, M., Kenai, S., & Meziane, E. (2006). Mechanical and durability properties of cement mortar with Algerian natural pozzolana. Journal of Material Science,
Gonzalez, M. A., & Irassar, E. F. (1997). Ettringite formation in low C3A Portland cement exposed to sodium sulfate solution. Cement and Concrete Research,
Guneyisi, E., Ozturan, T., & Gesoglu, M. (2005). A study on reinforcement corrosion and related properties of plain and blended cement concretes under different curing conditions. Cement & Concrete Composites,
Ha, T., Muralidharan, S., Bae, J., Ha, Y., Lee, H., Park, K., & Kim, D. (2007). Accelerated short-term techniques to evaluate the corrosion performance of steel in fly ash blended concrete. Building and Environment,
Hooton, R. D., & Emery, J. J. (1990). Sulphate resistance of a Canadian slag cement. ACI Materials Journal,
Horsakulthai, V., Phiuvanna, S., & Kaenbud, W. (2011). Investigation on the corrosion resistance of bagasse-rice husk-wood ash blended cement concrete by impressed voltage. Construction and Building Materials,
Hossain, K. M. A. (2003). Blended cement using volcanic ash and pumice. Cement and Concrete Research,
Hossain, K. M. A. (2009). Resistance of scoria-based blended cement concrete against deterioration and corrosion in mixed sulfate environment. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering ASCE,
Hossain, A. B., Shirazi, S. A., Persum, J., Neithalath, N. (2008). Properties of concrete containing vitreous calcium aluminosilicate pozzolan. In Proceedings of the 87th transportation research board annual meeting, January, Washington DC.
Irassar, E. F., Gonzalez, M. A., & Rahhal, V. (2000). Sulfate resistance of type V cements with limestone filler and natural pozzolan. Cement & Concrete Composites,
ISO 4012 (1978). Concrete: Determination of compressive strength of test specimens. London, UK: ISO.
Khedr, S. A., & Idriss, A. F. (1995). Resistance of silica-fume concrete to corrosion-related damage. ASCE, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,
Lawrence, C. D. (1990). Sulfate attack on concrete. Magazine of concrete Research,
Mehta, P. K., & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2006). Concrete: Microstructure, properties, and materials (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-146289-9.
Mindess, S., Young, J. F., & Darwin, D. (2003). Concrete (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Montgomery, D. C., & Peck, E. A. (1982). Introduction to linear regression analysis. New York, NY: Wiley.
Neville, A. M. (2011). Properties of concrete (5th ed.). London, UK: Pearson Education.
Parande, A. K., Babu, B. R., Karthic, M. A., Deepak Kumaar, K. K., & Palaniswamy, N. (2008). Study on strength and corrosion performance for steel embedded in metakaolin blended concrete/mortar. Construction and Building Materials,
Pavlik, V. (1994). Corrosion of hardened cement paste by acetic and nitric acids; Part II: Formation and chemical composition of the corrosion products layer. Cement and Concrete Research,
Pourkhorshidi, A. R., Najimi, M., Parhizkar, T., Jafarpour, F., & Hillemeier, B. (2010). Applicability of the standard specification of ASTM C 618 for evaluation of natural pozzolans. Cement & Concrete Composites,
Ramezanianpour, A. A., Mirvalad, S. S., Aramun, E., Peidayesh, M. (2010). Effect of four Iranian natural pozzolans on concrete durability against chloride penetration and sulfate attack. In P. Claisse et al. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on sustainable construction materials and technology, 28–30 June, Ancona, Italy.
Reddy, D. V., Edouard, J. B., Sobhan, K., Rajpathak, S.S. (2011). Durability of reinforced fly ash-based geopolymer concrete in the marine environment. In Proceedings of the 36th Conference on Our World in Concrete & Structures, August 14–16, Singapore.
Rodriguez-Camacho, R. E., & Uribe-Afif, R. (2002). Importance of using natural pozzolans on concrete durability. Cement and Concrete Research,
Rossignolo, J. A., & Agesini, M. V. C. (2004). Durability of polymer-modified lightweight aggregate concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites,
Rukzon, S., & Chindaprasirt, P. (2009). Effect of grinding on chemical and physical properties of rice husk ash. Int J Miner Metal Mater,
Saraswathy, V., & Song, H.-W. (2007). Corrosion performance of rice husk ash blended concrete. Construction and Building Materials,
Senhadji, Y., Escadeillas, G., Khelafi, H., Mouli, M., & Benosman, A. S. (2012). Evaluation of natural pozzolan for use as supplementary cementitious material. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering,
Shaker, F. A., El-Dieb, A. S., & Reda, M. M. (1997). Durability of styrene-bautadiene latex modified concrete. Cement and Concrete Research,
Talbot, C., Pigeon, M., Maarchand, M., & Hornain, J. (1995). Properties of mortar mixtures containing high amounts of various supplementary cementitious materials. In V. M. Malhotra (Ed.), Proceeding of the fifth international conference on the use of fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolana in Concrete, ACI SP 153,
Milwaukee (pp. 125–152). Milwaukee, WI: American Concrete Institute.
Tangchirapat, W., Jaturapitakkul, C., & Chindaprasirt, P. (2009). Use of palm oil fuel ash as a supplementary cementitious material for producing high-strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials,
The General Establishemnt of Geology and Mineral Resources in Syria. (GEGMR). (2007). Official document no. (3207/T/9), dated 21.11.2007 (in Arabic).
The General Organisation for Cement & Building Materials. (GOCBM) (2011). www.cemsyria.com. Accessed 2011 (in Arabic).
The General Establishment of Geology and Mineral Resources in Syria (GEGMR). (2011). A Guide for mineral resources in Syria (in Arabic).
Turanli, L., Uzal, B., & Bektas, F. (2005). Effect of large amounts of natural pozzolan addition on properties of blended cements. Cement Concrete Research,